**Periodic Physics **

**An independent approach to the cosmological and subatomic riddles **

odedbaron@013.net

Modern Physics insightfully solved difficulties that Classical Physics encountered. When applied to large-scale cosmology, Modern Physics loses its “magic” and leaves key observations unexplained. The Standard Model of particle physics is also unsatisfying. These are indications that Modern Physics is a simplification of a more general theory. A proposal for that more general theory, including its cosmological model, its subatomic model, and its predictions, is introduced here.

Postulates Introduced by Periodic Physics

Predictions and Gravitational Potentials

__Part I: Special Theory of Time-Asymmetric Relativity __

__Part III: Six-Dimensional Universe __

Part IV: **S****imple Model of Subatomic Substance**

· Einstein’s Relativity is a simplification of Time-Asymmetric Relativity. Einstein’s Relativity is useful only in a limited domain and is fundamentally misleading when applied to large-scale cosmology.

· In addition to the familiar invariant-rate time, there also flows the variant-rate time; the speed of light with respect to the variant-rate time is the fundamental variant of Nature. The variant speed of light, not the expansion of the universe, is the key for the correct interpretation of extra-galactic observations.

· The cosmological redshift indicates that along the observable past the variant speed of light with respect to planet Earth has been monotonously decreasing.

· The continuous evolution of the variant speed of light, which is monotonous along extremely large intervals, is ultimately directionally periodic. This directionally periodic evolution is the underlying principle behind the arrow of time.

· The directionally periodic evolution of the variant speed of light provides dark night sky at the decreasing phase (cosmological redshift) and recycles helium back to hydrogen at the increasing phase (light from the past is extremely blue-shifted and the inverse process of the thermo-nuclear fusion takes place; glowing nebulas experience this phase).

· The continuum in which world-lines lie is three-dimensional; there exists an unobservable orthogonal universe where this unobservable three-dimensional continuum is stationary and observable. The world-lines of the unobservable massive substance (tachyons) are space-like.

· There are two kinds of length-dependent gravitation: instantaneous gravitation and gravitational waves. The geometry of space-time is determined by the instantaneous gravitation, and the gravitational waves are ripples in that geometry. Gravitational waves are geometrical waves; they do not carry energy (the energy they are thought to carry has been converted and disappeared to the orthogonal universe).

· Each of the quantities: length, time, mass, and charge, is a complementary pair of two different fundamental quantities, a true quantity, and an additional quantity. The true quantity is characteristically a variant/variable quantity, and the additional quantity is characteristically an invariant quantity.

· The magnitude of the instantaneous gravitation (in the first approximation) is inversely proportional to the squared modulus of the additional distance of the affecting event from the affected event (along the relevant connecting geodesic). The simultaneity of the instantaneous gravitation (the affecting events for a given affected event) is controlled and determined such that the supreme design of the universe is executed.

· Space-time singularities never occur. They are prevented by controlled gravitation and by the conversion of physical substance to its orthogonal form. The tachyon substance that has been converted appears in the observable universe as cosmic rays.

· Cosmic rays toward Earth are controlled and designed to maintain the hot temperature of Earth’s core without harming life (antimatter cosmic rays would harm life). Thus, the fact that in the primary cosmic rays there is only a very tiny amount of antimatter does not prove that the symmetry between matter and antimatter has been broken.

· Gravitational mass is an invariant quantity; it is positive for massive matter, negative for massive antimatter, and zero for photons (the pseudo gravitational mass of photons determines their gravitational potential-energy, but photons have no influence on the gravitational field).

· Matter galaxies and antimatter galaxies are distributed such that, due to the instantaneous gravitational repulsion between opposite-sign gravitational masses and due to the instantaneous gravitational attraction between equal-sign gravitational masses, the universe is a gravitational crystal.

· Astrophysical jets and relativistic jets originate in super-massive black holes; matter from their accretion disks is intensively converted there to its orthogonal form and immediately reconverted and ejected to the observable universe in continuous condensed jets.

· There are four kinds of mass-less particles: transition photons—emitted in quantum energy transitions of matter, exmediation photons—mediators of a matter electromagnetic field that became real, transition antiphotons—emitted in quantum energy transitions of antimatter, and exmediation antiphotons—mediators of an antimatter electromagnetic field that became real. In collisions of photons with antiphotons of their kind photon-antiphoton annihilations occur, and pairs of neutrino-antineutrino are produced.

· The gravitational potential of photons is generated solely by the gravitational mass of matter; the gravitational potential of antiphotons is generated solely by the gravitational mass of antimatter. This is the reason that antimatter galaxies , when observed from a matter galaxy, are of higher redshift than matter galaxies, which otherwise are of the same circumstances.

· Transition antiphotons are weakly absorbed by matter; however, exmediation photons are normally absorbed by matter; also, since most of the radiation of a matter galaxy are transition photons, the propagation of antiphotons inside a matter galaxy involves more annihilations of transition antiphotons than annihilations of exmediation antiphotons. Thus, from all the radiation of antimatter galaxies, mainly exmediation antiphotons are observed. This and their reinforced redshift are the reasons that antimatter galaxies look incomparably faint relative to matter galaxies, which otherwise are of the same circumstances.

· Quasars are active nuclei of antimatter galaxies; the red-shift of their radiation (it is cyclotron/synchrotron radiation) is extremely reinforced because that radiation is emitted at the immediate proximity of super-massive antimatter black-holes and is observed at a matter galaxy very far from any antimatter galaxy.

· Due to the principle of cosmic odyssey, most of the non-virtual photons in empty space eventually return to their emitting systems in converging superpositions that are equally distributed over the whole solid angle. Thus, the cosmological background radiation was emitted from our solar system.

· Wave-functions are six-dimensional—three-dimensional x-component and three dimensional w-component. The phases of a wave-functions of the observable substance are rotating vectors in the three-dimensional w-continuum, while the phases of the wave-functions of tachyons are rotating vectors in the three-dimensional x-continuum; this is the ultimate reason that tachyons are unobservable.

· The non-composite building blocks of all the massive substance are the up-quark, the electron, the electron-neutrino, and their three antiparticles.

· Gravitation and electricity operate at three modes: the length-dependent mode, the contact mode, and the internal mode.

· Each participant in an internal-mode interaction is charged with a variable charge (the variable charge, like the variant-rate time, is not known to Modern Physics). The independent variable, on which the internal influence on a participant depends, is its variable charge.

**"The problems that we have created cannot be solved at the level of thinking that created them." **

**- Albert Einstein**

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**“Most people, including those at ease with problems of the greatest complexity, can seldom accept even the simplest and most obvious truth, if it is such as would oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions which they have delighted in explaining to colleagues, which they have proudly taught to others, and which they have woven thread by thread into the fabric of their lives.”**

*- Leo Tolstoy*