Periodic Physics

The Fourth Stage of Physics

Oded Bar-On

Modern Physics insightfully solved difficulties that Classical Physics encountered.  When applied to the entire universe Modern Physics loses its "magic".  The Standard Model of particle physics is also far from being satisfying.  These are indications that Modern Physics is a simplification of a more general theory.  A proposal for that more general theory, the fourth stage of physics, is introduced here.


Some Main Features

·    Einstein’s Relativity is a simplification of Time-Asymmetric Relativity. Einstein’s Relativity is useful only in a limited domain and is fundamentally misleading when applied to large-scale cosmology.

·      In addition to the familiar invariant-rate time, there also flows a variant-rate time; the speed of light with respect to the variant-rate time is the fundamental variant of Nature. The variant speed of light, not the expansion of the universe, is the key for the correct interpretation of extra-galactic observations.

·       The cosmological red shift indicates that along the observable past the variant speed of light with respect to planet Earth has been monotonously decreasing.

·       The continuous evolution of the variant speed of light, which is monotonous along extremely large intervals, is ultimately directionally periodic. The periodic evolution provides dark night sky at the decreasing phase and recycles heavy nuclei back to hydrogen at the increasing phase (glowing nebulas experience this phase).

·      Each of the quantities: length, time, mass, and charge, is a complementary pair of two different fundamental quantities, a true quantity and an additional quantity. The true quantity is characteristically a variant/variable quantity, and the additional quantity is characteristically an invariant quantity.

·      Gravitational mass is an invariant quantity; it is positive for massive matter, negative for massive antimatter, and zero for photons.

·      Matter galaxies and antimatter galaxies are distributed such that, due to the gravitational repulsion between opposite-sign gravitational masses and due to the gravitational attraction between equal-sign gravitational masses, the universe is a gravitational crystal.

·       The continuum in which world-lines lie is three-dimensional; there exists an unobservable orthogonal universe where this unobservable three-dimensional continuum is stationary and observable. The world-lines of the unobservable massive matter/antimatter (tachyons) are space-like.

·       There are two kinds of length-dependent gravitation: instantaneous gravitation, which results from the presence of gravitational mass, and gravitational waves, which result from disappearing of massive matter to the orthogonal universe, or from conversion of mass to other forms of energy.  Gravitational waves are geometrical waves; they do not carry energy (the energy they are thought to carry has disappeared to the orthogonal universe, or exists in other forms).

·      The magnitude of the instantaneous gravitation (in the first approximation) is inversely proportional to the squared modulus of the additional distance of the affecting event from the affected event.  The simultaneity of the instantaneous gravitation (the affecting events for a given affected event) is controlled and determined such that the supreme design of the universe is executed.

·      Space-time singularity never occurs.  It is prevented by controlled gravitation and also by conversion of matter to its orthogonal form.  The physical matter which has been converted in the unobservable universe appears in the observable universe as cosmic rays.

·    Cosmic rays toward Earth are controlled and designed to maintain the hot temperature of Earth’s core without harming life.  The fact that in the primary cosmic rays there is only very tiny amount of antimatter does not prove that there is no significant macroscopic amounts of antimatter in the universe. 

·    Astrophysical jets and relativistic jets originate in massive black holes; matter is intensively converted there to its orthogonal form and immediately reconverted and ejected to the observable universe in continuous condensed jets.

·     The gravitational potential-energy of photons emitted by matter is generated solely by the gravitational mass of matter; the gravitational potential-energy of photons emitted by antimatter is generated solely by the gravitational mass of antimatter.  This is the reason that antimatter galaxies are of higher red-shift than matter galaxies which otherwise are of the same circumstances.

·    Photons emitted in quantum energy transitions of antimatter are hardly absorbed by matter; however, cyclotron/synchrotron photons emitted by antimatter are normally absorbed by matter.  Thus, from all the radiation of antimatter galaxies, mainly sufficiently intensive cyclotron/synchrotron radiation is observed.  This and their reinforced red-shift are the reasons that antimatter galaxies look fainter than matter galaxies which otherwise are of the same circumstances.

·    Quasars are active nuclei of antimatter galaxies; the red-shift of their radiation (it is cyclotron/synchrotron radiation) is extremely reinforced due to the fact that it is emitted at the immediate proximity of super-massive antimatter black-holes and is observed at a matter galaxy very far from any antimatter galaxy.

·    Due to the principle of cosmic odyssey, most of the non-virtual photons in empty space eventually return to their emitting systems in converging superpositions that are equally distributed over the whole solid angle.  Thus, the cosmological background radiation was emitted from our solar system.

·      Wave-functions are six-dimensional, three-dimensional x-component and three dimensional w-component; the phase of a wave-function is a rotating vector in the three-dimensional w-continuum.

·     The non-composite building blocks of all massive matter and of all massive antimatter are the up-quark, the electron, the electron-neutrino, and their three antiparticles.

·        Gravitation and electricity operate at three modes: the length-dependent mode, the contact mode, and the internal mode.

·        Each participant in an internal-mode interaction is charged with a variable charge (the variable charge, like the variant-rate time, is not known to Modern Physics). The independent variable, on which the internal influence on a participant depends, is its variable charge.

"The problems that we have created cannot be solved at the level of thinking that created them."

- Albert Einstein


“Most people, including those at ease with problems of the greatest complexity, can seldom accept even the simplest and most obvious truth, if it is such as would oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions which they have delighted in explaining to colleagues, which they have proudly taught to others, and which they have woven thread by thread into the fabric of their lives.”

- Leo Tolstoy