The Fourth Stage of Physics
Modern Physics insightfully solved difficulties that Classical Physics encountered. When applied to the entire universe Modern Physics loses its "magic". The Standard Model of particle physics is also far from being satisfying. These are indications that Modern Physics is a simplification of a more general theory. A proposal for that more general theory, the fourth stage of physics, is introduced here.
· Einstein’s Relativity is a simplification of Time-Asymmetric Relativity. Einstein’s Relativity is useful only in a limited domain and is fundamentally misleading when applied to the entire universe.
· In addition to the familiar invariant-rate time, there also flows a variant-rate time; the speed of light with respect to the variant-rate time is the fundamental variant of Nature. The variant speed of light, not the expansion of the universe, is the key for the correct interpretation of extra-galactic observations.
· The cosmological red shift indicates that with respect to planet Earth the variant speed of light, along the observable past, has been monotonously decreasing.
· The continuous evolution of the variant speed of light, which is monotonous along extremely large intervals, is ultimately directionally periodic. The periodic evolution provides dark night sky at the decreasing phase, and recycles heavy nuclei back to hydrogen at the increasing phase (glowing nebulas experience this phase).
· Each of the quantities: length, time, mass, and charge, is a complementary pair of two different fundamental quantities, a true quantity and an additional quantity. The true quantity is characteristically a variant/variable quantity, and the additional quantity is characteristically an invariant quantity.
· Gravitational mass is an invariant quantity; it is positive for massive matter, negative for massive antimatter, and zero for photons.
· The continuum in which world-lines lie is three-dimensional; there exists an unobservable orthogonal universe where this unobservable three-dimensional continuum is stationary and observable. The world-lines of the unobservable matter lie in our spatial continuum.
· There are two kinds of length-dependent gravitation: instantaneous gravitation, which results from the presence of gravitational mass, and propagated gravitation, which results from conversion of massive matter to its orthogonal form.
· The magnitude of instantaneous, length-dependent gravitation is inversely proportional to the squared modulus of the additional distance of the affecting event from the affected event. The instantaneous gravitational simultaneity, which is essentially different from the familiar (electric) simultaneity, is controlled and determined such that the ultimately-static structure of the cosmos is maintained and such that numerous solar systems contain living planets.
· Space-time singularity never occurs. It is prevented by controlled gravitation and also by conversion of matter to its orthogonal form. The physical matter which has been converted in the unobservable universe appears in the observable universe as cosmic rays.
Matter galaxies and antimatter galaxies are distributed such that, due to the gravitational repulsion between opposite-sign gravitational masses and due to the gravitational attraction between equal-sign gravitational masses, the universe is a gravitational crystal.
Photons emitted in quantum energy transitions of antimatter cannot be absorbed by matter; however, cyclotron photons emitted by antimatter are absorbable by matter. Thus, from all the radiation of antimatter galaxies only sufficiently intensive cyclotron radiation can be observed.
Photons emitted by matter are gravitationally affected (attracted) only by matter; photons emitted by antimatter are gravitationally affected (attracted) only by antimatter.
The cosmological background radiation was emitted from our solar system; it returns because for photons the universe is positively curved. Due to the way photons' wave-functions evolve, most of this radiation survives unabsorbed and is coming back from the longest possible voyage in evenly distributed converging superpositions.
Quasars are nuclei of antimatter spiral galaxies; the red-shift of their radiation is extremely reinforced due to the fact that it is emitted at the immediate proximity of very massive antimatter black-holes and is observed at a matter galaxy very far from any antimatter galaxy.
· Wave-functions are six-dimensional, three-dimensional x-component and three dimensional w-component.
· The non-composite building blocks of all massive matter and of all massive antimatter are the up-quark, the electron, the electron-neutrino, and their three antiparticles.
· Gravitation and electricity operate at three modes: the length-dependent mode, the contact mode, and the internal mode.
· Each participant in an internal-mode interaction is charged with variable charge (the variable charge, like the variant-rate time, is not known to Modern Physics). The independent variable, on which the internal influence on a participant depends, is its variable charge.
"The problems that we have created cannot be solved at the level of thinking that created them."
- Albert Einstein
“Most people, including those at ease with problems of the greatest complexity, can seldom accept even the simplest and most obvious truth, if it is such as would oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions which they have delighted in explaining to colleagues, which they have proudly taught to others, and which they have woven thread by thread into the fabric of their lives.”
- Leo Tolstoy